We’ve Seen Stranger Things Than Stranger Things

by Alejandra Torres

Abstract:

Stranger Things is not really that strange. By this I do not mean that the storyline about clandestine child experiments and an Upside Down world is normal. However, Stranger Things’ seemingly retro logic of gender is not that far off from contemporary ideas. In an attempt to follow Eleven’s advice about lying— that “friends do not lie”—this paper aims to expose the menacing conservative arguments on the level of gender and masculinity depicted on both seasons of Stranger Things. When a show like this one becomes famous and beloved we, as an audience, cease to look at it from a critical standpoint. Therefore, as viewers we revel in the pleasantness of nostalgia that the show invokes through its return to the 80s. Yet, have you noticed the standard of hyper-masculinity that the men in Hawkins are supposed to uphold? Are you aware of the homophobic nature of male dialogue within the show? The expectation to be hyper-masculine has serious repercussions. Men in Hawkins undergo a crisis of masculinity because they cannot be “manly” all the time. But the show’s commitment to this crisis is actually what undoes the show’s title. The persistent crisis of masculinity portrayed in the show is not something that only happens in “movies and comic books,” as Bob might argue. In fact, this is one of the most prominent social problems of the contemporary moment. Therefore, while we are nostalgically drawn to Stranger Things, its retro-mode has a;sp blinded us to two things: the consequences of a hyper-masculinity standard and the perpetuation of a crisis of masculinity. In other words, the strange thing about Stranger Things is that it makes us forget that this crisis is still happening—that it did not end in the 80s. But is the show strange? Or are we?

 

Article:

Stranger Things [i] is not really that strange. In fact, the show should be re-branded as something more attuned to its politics. Maybe something along the lines of Normative Things? The reason behind facetiously suggesting a rebranding of the show’s title is the following: Stranger Things says more about you and me than about the Upside Down. The basic premise for Stranger Things is a supernatural coming of age story set in the 80s. Its storyline revolves around a group of friends—Will, Mike, Lucas and Dustin—trying to close the gate between the Upside Down—an alternate reality—and Hawkins—their home town. As soon as the show was released, it became one of Netflix’s most successful products. As a result, the show was granted a second season which registered “69.9 million average demand expressions (indicating intent to view or actual viewing)”[ii] for its release date. Therefore, Stranger Things became the “No.1 most in demand show among U.S. viewers.”[iii] The show pays homage to the era it is set in by imitating scenes from movies like E.T. and The Goonies. It draws in its audience by reminding them of those "good old days." However, when a show like this one becomes famous and beloved we, as an audience, cease to look at it from a critical standpoint. Hence, as viewers we revel in the pleasantness of nostalgia that the show invokes through its embodiment of the 80s. Nostalgia, therefore, conceals the show’s sinister backward orientation on the level of gender and masculinity.

            Stranger Things’ underlying logic about gender and masculinity is similar to contemporary ideas. In an attempt to follow Eleven’s advice about lying— that “friends do not lie”[iv]—this paper aims to expose the menacing conservative arguments on the level of gender and masculinity depicted on both seasons of Stranger Things. What the show exposes is that men in Hawkins are undergoing a crisis of masculinity. This crisis arises from the hyper-masculine standard that men are supposed to uphold. However, men cannot be ‘manly’ all the time which puts them in an ‘either/or’ situation—either keep on acting manly or risk being called a “bitch”, “faggot”, or “queer.” To push this even further I would argue that one of the more uncomfortable reasons for the show’s great resonance is not only nostalgia, but its engagement with this crisis of masculinity.  Therefore, the show’s commitment to this crisis is what undoes its title. The persistent crisis portrayed on-screen is not something that only happens in “movies and comic books,”[v] as Bob—Joyce Byers’ boyfriend—might argue. In fact, it is one of the most pressing social issues in contemporary debates. In other words, the strange thing about Stranger Things is that it makes us forget that this crisis is still happening—that it did not end in the 80’s. This crisis binds the world of Hawkins to our reality.

“Let’s Hear it for the Boy”[vi]: What Is Masculinity?

            Before we discuss how Stranger Things portrays masculinity, we must acknowledge what others have said about this topic. In Susan Alexander’s article, “Stylish Hard Bodies: Branded Masculinity in Men’s Health Magazine”, she presents a historical account of what “hegemonic masculinity”[vii] means. She states that for Brannon (1976) the “hegemonic masculine gender role contains four themes: No Sissy Stuff, the Big Wheel, the Sturdy Oak, and Give ‘Em Hell.”[viii] The first theme encompasses that a man “must never resemble feminine characteristics.”[ix] Hence, a man must always look manly—“have deep voices, avoid the use of cosmetics and give minimal attention to their clothes and hygiene.”[x]  In regards to emotions, real men “must present themselves as invulnerable.”[xi] The second theme depicts that a man must be able to obtain “wealth, fame and success.”[xii] The third theme conveys “manliness, confidence, and self-reliance.”[xiii] The last theme “emits an aura of aggression and violence.”[xiv] It is not surprising, therefore, that “homophobia is a central organizing principal”[xv] on how masculinity is defined. In other words, being a real man is defined in opposition to homosexual identities. Alexander notes that according to the Media Education Foundation (1999) men wear the mask of “the Tough Guise.”[xvi] The Tough Guise is “a performance in which violent masculinity is the norm.”[xvii] It represents a backlash to anything perceived as “a threat to the dominant culture of white, heterosexual men.”[xviii] However, it is important to highlight that the Media Education Foundation denotes this performance as a mask. It implies that men attempt to conceal their vulnerability or “feminine behaviours”[xix] just to fit within the normative.

            This toxic masculinity is passed down from generation to generation. In a recent Vice interview a group of men opened up about their struggle with toxic masculinity. They stated that “vulnerability, sensitivity, or anything deemed particularly ‘feminine’ is rarely encouraged in young boys growing up.”[xx] Instead men are told to align themselves with qualities like “strength, power and sexual aggression”[xxi] because those “make-up a real man.”[xxii] In Kenny’s experience, one of the interviewee, he was “told to act and be a certain way.”[xxiii] He states “it was very much like don't be soft, don't show any true emotion, act like everything is OK all the time, act strong, and don't show any weakness.”[xxiv] Kenny also states that he experienced “overt, standardized, toxic masculinity”[xxv] with his peers. Louis, another interviewee, associates toxic masculinity with social hierarchy. He argues that there is a “hierarchy of men within toxic masculinity.”[xxvi] You either follow the leader or get booted off the hierarchy. Louis also agrees with Kenny in regards to toxic masculinity being hereditary. It is passed down from a dad who teaches his son who is expected to teach their own son and so on. In other words, it makes toxic masculinity seem as a dead-end. This approach to masculinity teaches men that this is it—“you’re a boy so you don’t cry.”[xxvii] Suck it up.

“Total Eclipse of the Heart”[xxviii]: Do Hawkins’ Men Have a Heart?

Men need to hide their emotions because otherwise Stranger Things categorizes them as ‘queer.’

            Following this trend, the real monster in the first season of Stranger Things is not the Demogorgon. It is, in fact, toxic masculinity. In the show all men are held to the same standard of masculinity. However, the epitome of toxic masculinity is Hopper, the Police Chief of Hawkins. The show introduces us to Hopper by showing his home before the camera settles on him. Hopper’s house is what one would ‘expect’ a man’s house to be. It is very dark, dirty, full of beer cans lying around, the TV is on and Hopper is asleep on his couch. The show intentionally gives the audience a peek into Hopper’s intimate space in order to foreground his manliness. Hopper also fits the aesthetic expectation of manhood because he is tall, has facial hair and is sturdy. Even his profession fits into the model of toxic masculinity. By being the Chief he is able to fulfill his duty as a protector for women and children. Hopper also expresses misogynistic tendencies in his first scene. As he makes his way into the Police Station one of his employees proceeds to tell him that he “looks like hell.”[xxix] To which Hopper confidently replies: “well, I looked better than your wife when I left her this morning.”[xxx] Hopper even tries to diminish Joyce Byers’ concern when she reports that Will, her son, is missing. “It’s a very emotional time for you,” Hopper tells Joyce. In other words, he alludes to the belief that women are too emotional while men are not vulnerable at all. Hopper, therefore, embodies what every men should aspire to be.

            And yet, the show portrays that even Hopper fails to adhere to all of masculinity’s requirements. After realizing that Joyce’s son is actually missing the show presents Hopper on his balcony looking into the horizon. Although his female companion tries to get him back to bed, he resists her request. “Have you ever felt cursed?”[xxxi], he asks her. For Hopper, failing to find Will symbolizes him failing as a man. Therefore, he wonders if he is cursed because he cannot fulfill his duty. The show consistently addresses this curse by showing flashbacks from Hopper’s past. In them, the audience can see him reading to his daughter whilst she is in the hospital due to cancer. Hopper is very tender and kind to her. However, it should be noted that he only presents vulnerability behind closed doors. With his daughter, for example, as soon as a doctor walks in he will distance himself and change his facial demeanour. Similarly, when his daughter dies he does not cry in the room. Instead, the show displays Hopper in a stairwell crying alone. Despite showing vulnerability—failing to be unemotional— the show is very clear about its politics.  Men are “not pussies”[xxxii]. They should not cry. But if they do, they need to hide.

            Men need to hide their emotions because otherwise Stranger Things categorizes them as “queer.” The prime examples of this categorization are the Byers brothers: Will and Jonathan. When Will goes missing Joyce tells Hopper that Will is “not like the other kids.”[xxxiii] He is “sensitive” which is why his dad referred to him as “queer.” However, Stranger Things depicts that those terms are not reserved only for adults because twelve-year olds comfortably use them too. When Will goes missing the bullies in his school argue that he was “probably killed by some other queer.”[xxxiv] When the school hosts an assembly to remember Will’s supposed death the bully reinforces this image. “Will is in fairyland now, flying around with other fairies”, he states, “all happy and gay.”[xxxv] Thus, Stranger Things acknowledges that not even elementary students are exempted from toxic masculinity. Will is only thought to be “queer” or a “faggot” because he is “sensitive.” It reinforces the idea that we can only know if a man is manly if he does not display “gay tendencies.” Even more troubling than this is that a very prominent percentage of Stranger Things’ dialogue has homophobic tendencies. And yet, as a viewer, we do not question these lines because we understand why they are making those assumptions. In other words, we think it is normal.

            Not only does Stranger Things think this tendency is normal. It actually endorses it. In Jonathan Byers’ case, his dad tried to sell masculinity as “a man’s job.”[xxxvi] So, for one of his birthdays Jonathan’s dad took him hunting and made him kill a rabbit. His dad’s logic was that it would make Jonathan “more of a man or something.”[xxxvii] However, Jonathan cried for a week after this incident. So his dad, and his peers, denominated him as “queer”. And because he is “queer” he is also thought of as a “pervert.” Jonathan is called a pervert by Steve, the most popular jock in high school. This is where Stranger Things gets even more twisted: the quarrel between Steve and Jonathan. Steve realizes that Jonathan took pictures of him and Nancy, his love interest, while they were at a party. Therefore, Steve confronts Jonathan and finds the pictures. “The thing about perverts,” Steve states, “is that it is hardwired into them.”[xxxviii] In other words, he implies that one is either a man or a pervert. There is no in-between. At this point Steve takes Jonathan’s camera and smashes it to the ground. Everyone around him cheers. After this they all leave, including Nancy, despite her knowing that this behaviour is unacceptable. Therefore, Stranger Things is trying to tell its audience that what Steve did is completely normal. It is making the viewer root for “King Steve” because he is “the man.” And who does not want a man?

            If the first season of Stranger Things was a woman then we could conclude that she definitely has a ‘type’. In other words, Stranger Things is very clear about the type of man that sits in the highest ranks of the male social hierarchy. Is there any other reason for the show to address Steve as King Steve? I would argue there is not. Steve is the most popular boy. However, he has not really done anything to deserve this title. He is mainly known for sleeping around with girls. This is why Nancy is hesitant to have sex with him at the beginning. “Was this your plan”, Nancy asks him, “to get another notch on your belt?”[xxxix] Even though Steve assures her it is not he fulfills his role as a ‘heartless jerk’ throughout the season. Steve sees Nancy with Jonathan in her room so he assumes Nancy is cheating on him. So, as a form of revenge he lets his friends write “Nancy the Slut Wheeler” on the cinema entrance. He tells Nancy to “go to hell” and then begins insulting Jonathan. He tells Jonathan that he “though he was a queer but he is just a screw-up like his father.”[xl] Steve continues to insult Jonathan’s brother and mother stating that his family is a “disgrace.” To sum it up, Steve is the opposite of a nice and decent guy. But, that is who Stranger Things supports all throughout the season. In the final episode, Steve actually gets the girl. Therefore, Stranger Things’ advice to the audience goes something like this: “A grade assholes”[xli] always win.

“We’re Not Gonna Take It”[xlii]: The Tears Begin to Fall in Hawkins

Stranger Things’ advice to the audience goes something like this: ‘A-grade assholes’ always win.

            As the 80s song by Twisted Sister states, it seems like the men in Hawkins are “not going to take”[xliii] this pressure from toxic masculinity any longer. In the second season of Stranger Things, set one year after the first season, the men in Hawkins are more open about their crisis of masculinity. While the first season tried to conceal their vulnerability, the second season takes a different approach to this topic. This season introduces a new male character, Billy. Billy is the poster child for the angry, rebellious, 80s man. He wears the tight denim jeans, open button-down shirts and always has a cigarette in hand. Billy and his sister, Max, moved from California to the small town of Hawkins. And if the audience thought Steve was bad, Billy takes away Steve’s title. Billy is extremely degrading towards women. He calls his fellow classmates “cow high-school girls.”[xliv] He even displays violent behaviour towards his little sister implying through his lines that he “takes out his anger”[xlv] on her. Billy is very adamant on being the new ‘king’. Hence, he beats Steve in basketball and in a keg stand. Billy tells Steve that there are “plenty of bitches in the sea”[xlvi] and that he will “leave some”[xlvii] for him. Therefore, Billy embodies the sexual ambition that men are constantly supposed to have. He serves the function of reinforcing toxic masculinity in the show.

            However, not even Billy can sustain this glorified expectation of being a manly man. During a scene in the second season Billy is getting ready to go out on a date. However, his dad and step-mom ask him where his little sister is. Billy states that she does not need a baby sitter and that he is going out. While we assume he is going to leave something different happens. His dad tells him that he has probably been “staring at himself like a faggot”[xlviii] instead of “watching his sister.”[xlix] Billy’s dad proceeds to push him against the wall and hit him. The camera displays the tension between the men while Billy’s dad states that Billy will call “whatever whore”[l] he was seeing and cancel their date to look for Max. “Isn’t that right?”[li], Billy’s dad yells at Billy. Billy responds softly at first and his dad makes him reply again louder—“like a man”. After this we can see Billy, the alpha macho, crying. However, as he is crying the camera shows Billy smashing something out of frustration because a man does not cry. This episode portrays how Billy was induced into toxic masculinity by his dad. But most importantly, it exhibits vulnerability from the anti-hero of the show. In other words, even the strongest break down.

            The character that is more open about his vulnerability is actually King Steve. In the second season Steve loses his title of ‘king’ to Billy. However, he does not really care about that in this season. At the beginning Steve is happily committed to Nancy. He regularly articulates his love and concern for her. Even when Billy says that he has “turned bitch”[lii] because of Nancy Steve continues to embody this ‘new persona’. Despite his new personality traits Nancy breaks his heart saying that her love for him is “bullshit.”[liii] The show uses close-up shots to display Steve’s hurt at this confession. For the remainder of the season Steve takes on the role of mentoring Dustin. Through his loyalty to Dustin the show tries to reframe some of the qualities of toxic masculinity. Steve becomes protective of the children and even endures a beating from Billy because he stood up for them. He is also aware of his flaws and portrays some of his insecurities on-screen stating that maybe “he is not good enough”[liv] to get into college. Steve even reveals to Dustin that he wears “Farrah Fawcett Hairspray and Faberge Organics.”[lv] What I would argue Stranger Things aimed for with Steve is to portray that a man can be both/and. That is to say that a man can be vulnerable and strong. They are attempting to discard the either/or conservative argument presented in season one.

            There is a very specific shift from season one to season two of Stranger Things. In this season men attempt to reconcile their masculinity and their “feminine tendencies.” For Hopper, he is portrayed as a single dad because he is taking care of Eleven. The show is bold enough to portray a man who epitomized masculinity as taking on the feminine role of care-taker. Hopper is very aware of his new role when he tells Eleven that his duty is now to “protect, feed and teach.”[lvi] And although he struggles to be vulnerable with Eleven he reveals why in the final episode. Hopper admits that he had “been so scared”[lvii] to mess his relationship with Eleven and fail at his new role. “That is why I get so angry,”[lviii] he tells Eleven. Hopper explains that his anger arises from feeling like he cannot be the man who has it all together. However, after he comes to term with his imperfections he is able to apologize to Eleven for his anger. Hopper’s acceptance of his vulnerability is shown physically as he cries with Eleven and tells her that he cares for her. Stranger Things, therefore, advocates for men to articulate their emotions and feel comfortable in displaying vulnerable behaviour. Even the Chief of Police authorizes this message.

“Every Rose Has Its Thorn”[lix]: What is Stranger Things trying to do?

in this battlefield of masculinity, toxic masculinity’s time’s up.

            After mapping out the shift in regards to masculinity from season one to season two we must wonder why the show decided to do this. In other words, why would season two aim to break down the walls built in season one? I would argue that this approach emphasizes how we have normalized the consequences of toxic masculinity. Stranger Things acts as a mirror for contemporary society. In season one it reflected how we have normalized toxic masculinity. As a result, we were attached to the show because we could understand the thought process of the characters on-screen. However, season two reflects the contemporary discussion—as the season was released in 2017—of toxic masculinity post-Trump election. In a recent article in The Guardian,  Jaclyn Friedman writes about how society is attempting to redefine masculinity. Friedman states that when she asked her male friends what kind of masculinity they wanted to see their answers were all based on diversity. The answers included “the musician Frank Ocean (for his “openness and vulnerability around sexuality”); the basketball star Steph Curry caring for his daughter at post-game press conferences; all of Barack Obama’s interactions with children; queer men of various stripes subverting the very definitions of manhood; and an array of fictional men of film and TV, including Bob from Bob’s Burgers and modern superheroes like the Flash and Midnighter.”[lx] What this exemplifies is that men are tired of having to abide by the standard of hegemonic masculinity. In this battlefield of masculinity, toxic masculinity’s time is up.

            Stranger Things, specifically in its second season, is advocating against the conservative ideas that have gained a lot of momentum in the political scene of the United States. Friedman addresses this stating that making “America Great Again” is based on conservative gender roles. “They’re yearning for the re-establishment of ‘traditional’ gender values in which men are dominant, women are subservient,” Friedman writes, “and anyone who questions whether that’s really the natural order of things is punished.”[lxi] Therefore, Strange Things is not only resisting these ideas. It is aiming to create a space where men can “enjoy emotional vulnerability.”[lxii] The show is saying to its audience that the fight is far from over. But if Hopper, Steve, and Billy can cry and still be considered ‘men’, then why can’t all men do the same?

 

Notes and References:

[i] Duffer, Brothers, director. Stranger Things. Netflix, 2015

[ii] Spangler, Todd. “‘Stranger Things’ Season 2 Demand Surge Makes It Top TV Show in U.S., Data Shows.” Variety, Nov. 2017, variety.com/2017/digital/news/stranger-things-2-demand-top-tv-show-rankings-data-1202609202/.

[iii] Spangler,Todd. “‘Stranger Things’ Season 2 Demand Surge Makes It Top TV Show in U.S., Data Shows.”

[iv] Duffer, Brothers. “The Bathtub.” Stranger Things, season 1, episode 7, Netflix, 2017.

[v] Duffer, Brothers. “The Spy.” Stranger Things, season 2, episode 6, Netflix, 2017.

[vi] Deniece Williams. “Let's Hear It For The Boy.” Footloose.

[vii] Alexander, Susan M. “Stylish Hard Bodies: Branded Masculinity in Men’s Health Magazine.” Sociological Perspectives, vol. 46, 2003, pp. 537-539, www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/10.1525/sop.2003.46.4.535.pdf?refreqid=excelsior:a90ae97d25b22ef3643769ddf2aefe1f.

[viii] Alexander, 535-539.

[ix] Alexander, 535-539.

[x] Alexander, 535-539.

[xi] Alexander, 535-539.

[xii] Alexander, 535-539.

[xiii] Alexander, 535-539.

[xiv] Alexander, 535-539.

[xv] Alexander, 535-539.

[xvi] Alexander, 535-539.

[xvii] Alexander, 535-539.

[xviii] Alexander, 535-539.

[xix] Alexander, 535-539.

[xx] Bell, Laura. “Guys Tell Us About Their Struggles with Toxic Masculinity.” Vice, Mar. 2018, www.vice.com/en_us/article/gympmx/guys-tell-us-about-their-struggles-with-toxic-masculinity.

[xxi] Bell, Laura. “Guys Tell Us About Their Struggles with Toxic Masculinity.

[xxii] Bell, Laura. “Guys Tell Us About Their Struggles with Toxic Masculinity.

[xxiii] Bell, Laura. “Guys Tell Us About Their Struggles with Toxic Masculinity.

[xxiv] Bell, Laura. “Guys Tell Us About Their Struggles with Toxic Masculinity.

[xxv] Bell, Laura. “Guys Tell Us About Their Struggles with Toxic Masculinity.

[xxvi] Bell, Laura. “Guys Tell Us About Their Struggles with Toxic Masculinity.

[xxvii] Bell, Laura. “Guys Tell Us About Their Struggles with Toxic Masculinity.

[xxviii] Bonnie Tyler. “Total Eclipse of the Heart.” Faster Than the Speed of the Night.

[xxix] Duffer, Brothers. “The Vanishing of Will Byers.” Stranger Things, season 1, episode 1, Netflix, 2016.

[xxx] Duffer, Brothers. “The Vanishing of Will Byers.” Stranger Things, season 1, episode 1, Netflix, 2016.

[xxxi] Duffer, Brothers. “The Weirdo on Maple Street.” Stranger Things, season 1, episode 2, Netflix, 2016.

[xxxii] Duffer, Brothers. “The Vanishing of Will Byers.” Stranger Things, season 1, episode 1, Netflix, 2016.

[xxxiii] Duffer, Brothers. “The Vanishing of Will Byers.” Stranger Things, season 1, episode 1, Netflix, 2016.

[xxxiv] Duffer, Brothers. “Holly Jolly.” Stranger Things, season 1, episode 3, Netflix, 2016.

[xxxv] Duffer, Brothers. “The Body.” Stranger Things, season 1, episode 4, Netflix, 2016.

[xxxvi] Duffer, Brothers. “The Flea and the Acrobat.” Stranger Things, season 1, episode 5, Netflix, 2016.

[xxxvii] Duffer, Brothers. “The Flea and the Acrobat.” Stranger Things, season 1, episode 5, Netflix, 2016.

[xxxviii] Duffer, Brothers. “Holly Jolly.” Stranger Things, season 1, episode 3, Netflix, 2016.

[xxxix] Duffer, Brothers. “The Vanishing of Will Byers.” Stranger Things, season 1, episode 1, Netflix, 2016.

[xl] Duffer, Brothers. “The Monster.” Stranger Things, season 1, episode 6, Netflix, 2016.

[xli] Duffer, Brothers. “The Body.” Stranger Things, season 1, episode 4, Netflix, 2016.

[xlii] Twisted Sister. “We're Not Gonna Take It.” You Can't Stop Rock & Roll.

[xliii] Twisted Sister. “We're Not Gonna Take It.” You Can't Stop Rock & Roll.

[xliv] Duffer, Brothers. “Trick or Treat.” Stranger Things, season 2, episode 2, Netflix, 2017.

[xlv] Duffer, Brothers. “The Spy.” Stranger Things, season 2, episode 6, Netflix, 2017.

[xlvi] Duffer, Brothers. “Will the Wise.” Stranger Things, season 2, episode 2, Netflix, 2017.

[xlvii] Duffer, Brothers. “Will the Wise.” Stranger Things, season 2, episode 2, Netflix, 2017.

[xlviii] Duffer, Brothers. “Mind Flayer.” Stranger Things, season 2, episode 8, Netflix, 2017.

[xlix] Duffer, Brothers. “Mind Flayer.” Stranger Things, season 2, episode 8, Netflix, 2017.

[l] Duffer, Brothers. “Mind Flayer.” Stranger Things, season 2, episode 8, Netflix, 2017.

[li] Duffer, Brothers. “Mind Flayer.” Stranger Things, season 2, episode 8, Netflix, 2017.

[lii] Duffer, Brothers. “The Pollywog.” Stranger Things, season 2, episode 3, Netflix, 2017.

[liii] Duffer, Brothers. “Will the Wise.” Stranger Things, season 2, episode 2, Netflix, 2017.

[liv] Duffer, Brothers. “MADMAX.” Stranger Things, season 2, episode 1, Netflix, 2017.

[lv] Duffer, Brothers. “The Spy.” Stranger Things, season 2, episode 6, Netflix, 2017.

[lvi] Duffer, Brothers. “Will the Wise.” Stranger Things, season 2, episode 2, Netflix, 2017.

[lvii] Duffer, Brothers. “The Gate.” Stranger Things, season 2, episode 9, Netflix, 2017.

[lviii] Duffer, Brothers. “The Gate.” Stranger Things, season 2, episode 9, Netflix, 2017.

[lix] Poison. “Every Rose Has Its Thorn.” Open Up And Say...Ahh!

[lx] Friedman, Jaclyn. “Building Better Men: How We Can Begin to Redefine Masculinity.” The Guardian, Mar. 2018, www.theguardian.com/world/2018/mar/12/masculinity-gender-men-sexual-assault-rape.

[lxi] Friedman, Jaclyn. “Building Better Men: How We Can Begin to Redefine Masculinity.” 

[lxii] Friedman, Jaclyn. “Building Better Men: How We Can Begin to Redefine Masculinity.”